Adjectives in Hindi | Types of Adjectives (विशेषण) in Hindi

Adjectives in Hindi

Adjectives are words that describe or modify a person or a thing in any sentence.

Or

Adjectives in Hindi:- Adjectives वह शब्द है जो वाक्य में प्रयुक्त Noun या Pronoun की विशेषता बताता है Noun या Pronoun की विशेषता बताता है|

 Examples:

  • She is a beautiful girl.
  • A tall man is walking along the river.
  • He is the richest person in this country.
  • They are good players.
  • Mumbai is a big city.

In the sentences above the words “beautiful”,”tall”, “richest”,”good” and “big” describe the nouns “girl”,”man”, “person”, “players” and “city” respectively.

Adjectives in Hindi

Adjectives in Hindi

 Adjective Types:

वैसे तो adjective दस प्रकार के होते है( Quality, Quantity, number, Demonstrative, Distributive, Possessive, Interrogative, Emphasising, Proper and Exclamatory ) जैसा की आप लोगो ने अब तक English grammar की books में देखा होगा , लेकिन competitive exams के point of view से देखा जाये तो उनका कोई बड़ा role नहीं है, अब अगर possessive, distributive, interrogative, demonstrative and so on की बात करे तो ये topics, Types of pronoun में भी सम्मलित है, Distributive pronoun या Distributive adjective के अंतर्गत  कुछ शब्द आते है

जैसे each, every, either, neither etc. इन सभी को subject-verb agreement में अलग से अच्छे से समझाया गया है.

सही मायने में adjectives दो प्रकार के होते है-

  1. Adjective of Quality (How)
  2. Adjective of Quantity. (How much)

1. Adjective of Quality:

ये adjective किसी Noun/pronoun के गुण, दोष, रंग आदि का वर्णन करते है

Colour: green, black, blue,………

Shape: square, triangular, circular,………

Size: small, long, large,………

Physical State: healthy, beautiful,………

Social state:  popular, rich, famous,………..

Quality: kind, brave, generous,…………………..

Adjectives examples:-

  • He is a brave man.
  • I have a red pen.
  • Sachin Tendulkar is a famous cricketer.

2. Adjective of Quantity:

ये adjectives वस्तु की मात्रा बताते है-

Some, any, little, few, a lot of, much, many, enough etc.

 Examples:-

  • There is no/some/much milk in the tea.
  • There is a little ink in the pen.
  • I don’t have any information about him.
  • A lot of players was there on the playground.

Adjective Uses

There are two uses of adjectives-

1. Attributive use: When an adjective is used before a noun.

a) He has a black pen.

2. Predictive use: When an adjective is used after a noun.

b) His pen is black.

Degree of adjectives in Hindi

Every adjective has three degrees of its own. They are: Positive, Comparative, Superlative degrees.

a. Positive degree:- जब एक व्यक्ति,वस्तु,समूह इत्यादि की विशेषता का वर्णन करना हो तो positive degree का प्रयोग होता है-

  Ex:- He is a good student.

Ravi is a tall boy.

b. Comparative degree:- जब एक व्यक्ति,वस्तु,समूह इत्यादि की तुलना किसी दूसरे व्यक्ति,वस्तु,समूह इत्यादि से की जाये तब comparative degree का प्रयोग करते है-

   Ex:-He is better student than Mohan.

Ajay is taller than Ravi.

c. Superlative degree:जब एक व्यक्ति,वस्तु,समूह इत्यादि की तुलना उस वर्ग के अन्य सभी व्यक्ति,वस्तु,समूह इत्यादि से की जाये तब superlative degree का प्रयोग करते है-

  Ex:-He is the best student in the class.

Mukesh is the tallest boy in the class.

There are two types of adjective:

1. Regular adjectives:

Regular adjectives make their comparative and superlative forms by adding “er” and “est”.

Adjective comparison:-

Positive Comparative Superlative
Bold Bolder Boldest
Old Older Oldest
Great Greater Greatest
Warm Warmer Warmest

If an adjective has two or more syllables* we use more or most to form a comparative and superlative degree.

Positive Comparative Superlative
Active More active Most active
Beautiful More beautiful Most beautiful
Careful More careful Most careful
Faithful More faithful Most faithful

*Syllable(शब्दखण्ड)à ex:- ac + tive =active

2. Irregular adjectives:

When there is a complete change in comparative and superlative degree, they are called irregular adjectives.

Adjective comparison:-

Positive Comparative Superlative
Good Better Best
Bad Worse Worst
Little Less Least
Far Farther Farthest
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