Gerunds and infinitives | rules and examples
Gerunds and Infinitives
Infinitives दो प्रकार के होते है –
1. Simple Infinitives (= Noun):- जो Infinitive वाक्य में Noun का कार्य करता है, उसे simple infinitive कहते है
Ex:- To find fault is easy.
2. Gerundial Infinitives (=Qualifying):-सामान्यत यह वाक्य में adjective या adverb का कार्य करता है
Ex:- We eat to live.
Note:- Infinitive में verb की first form से पहले to लगा होता है तथा हिंदी अनुवाद के अंत में ‘ना’ आता है–
Ex:- To find fault à दोष निकालना
Use of Infinitives
1. Subject of a verb:-
Ex:-To forgive is divine.
To learn new things is a good quality.
2. Object of a verb:-
Ex:- I like to write Hindi Poems.
3. Complement of a verb:-
Ex:- My great pleasure is to sing.
4. Object to a preposition:-
Ex:- I have no choice but to go.
5. Adverb की तरह किसी verb को qualify करने के लिए:-
Ex:- He sold his motorbike to buy a car. (purpose)
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What is a Gerund?
Ex:- Walking is very useful. (walking is used as a noun)
They are fond of playing football.
Use of Gerund
A. Subject of a verb:-
Ex:- Reading is my hobby.
Swimming is good for health
B. Object of a verb:-
Ex:- I like playing cricket.
I like reading novels.
C. Complement of a verb:-
Ex:- What I hate most is smoking.
D. Adjective of a preposition:-
Ex:- He was punished for telling a lie.
Some facts about Gerunds and Infinitives
1. निम्नलिखित verbs के साथ Infinitives का use होता है:-
Agree, attempt, beg, choose, dare, learn, like, love, manage, arrange, seem, need, prefer, prepare, pretend, try, wish, promise, fail, hope, decide, proceed, plan etc.
Ex:- They planned to visit the Taj Mahal.
He dared that he could challenge me.
He dared to challenge me.
2. निम्नलिखित verbs के साथ object + to + V1 का use होता है:-
Allow, advise, compel, encourage, expect, forbid, force invite, oblige, order, permit, request, tell, want, teach show, etc.
Ex:- The teacher allowed the students to enter the classroom.
Q:- He ordered his servant(A)/ that he should bring(B)/ a cup of tea.(C)/ no error(D) [Ans:- B]
Correct:- He ordered his servant to bring a cup of tea.
3. Active style में sentence में feel, hear, see, notice, watch, make का use होने पर तथा इसके बाद object हो तो Infinitive का use नहीं होता ह :-
Ex:- I heard her to cry. (incorrect)
I heard her cry. (correct)
4. Had better (अच्छा होता), had rather, would rather के बाद Infinitive का use नहीं होता है:-
Ex:- You had better go than to stay here. (incorrect)
You had better to go than stay here. (incorrect)
You had better to go than to stay here. (incorrect)
You had better go than stay here. (correct) (अच्छा होगा कि तुम यहाँ रुकने कि बजाय चले जाओ)
Q:- He would rather die than tell a lie.
5. There are certain ordinary verbs that are followed by a bare Infinitive (without ‘to’):-
Make, Let, bid, feel, hear, see, watch, notice, help, shall, should, will, would, can, could etc.
Ex:– It is impossible(A)/ to make her to understand(B)/ the problem.(C)/no error(D) [Ans.- B]
Correct:- It is impossible to make her understand the problem.
Note:- Passive construction में make & see के बाद full Infinitive आता है:-
Ex:- She was made to laugh. (correct)
He was seen to enter the room. (correct)
1. If Gerund is used in the form of verb then the object is to be used after that.
Ex:- He was good at playing.(incorrect)
He was good at playing Cricket. (correct)
2. When Noun/pronoun is used before Gerund then Noun/pronoun must be in the possessive case
Ex:- I was pleased at Paul going there.(incorrect)
I was pleased at Paul’s going there.(correct)
3. There are some verbs with whom only Gerund is used as an object.
Avoid, practice, deny, enjoy, stop, favor, finish, give-up, complete, miss, putt-off, suggest, feel, stand, dislike, go on, it is no use, it is no good etc
Ex:- Stop writing.
He denied having been there.
Q. You should avoid(A)/ to travel(B)/ during the rush hour.(C)/no error(D)
Correct:- You should avoid traveling during the rush hour.
4. There are some words with whom Infinitive is not used but they need a preposition followed by a Gerund.
Capable of, addicted to, fond of, prevent from, insist on, expert in, succeed in, refrain from forward to, bent on, keep on, think of, aware of, afraid of, committed to, convinced of, dedicated to, jealous of, responsible for, worried about etc.
Ex:- He is fond of reading books.
He is capable of doing this work.
Q:- The darkness(A)/ prevented us to see(B)/ the obstruction.(C)/ no error(D)
Correct:- The darkness prevented us from seeing the obstruction.