Tenses in Hindi | Types of Tenses (काल के प्रकार) in Hindi

Tenses in Hindi

A tense indicates the time of an action or state of being as shown by a verb. 

(Tense  किसी कार्य के समय एवं अवस्था को व्यक्त करता है)

Or

Tense क्रिया के विभिन्न रूपों पर आधारित एक रचना है

Ex:- He is going to school.    [present]

I went home.      [past]

I will go to Delhi tomorrow.    [future]

 tenses in hindi

Tenses in hindi

Types of Tenses in Hindi

 

Time के आधार पर Tenses तीन प्रकार के होते है-

  1. Present Tense(जो वर्तमान की बात बताये)
  2. Past Tense (जो बीते समय की बात बताये)
  3. future Tense (जो भविष्य की बात बताये)

इन तीनो Tenses के भी चार – चार रूप होते है-

  • Simple(Indefinite)
  • Continuous
  • Perfect 
  • Perfect  continuous

Tenses in Hindi

1. Present tense(वर्तमान काल)

a.Simple present(do/does) [हिंदी वाक्यो के अंत में ता है / ते है /ती है आता है]

We use the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is repeated or usual. The action can be a habit, a hobby, a daily event or something that often happens.

structure:-

Sub.+V1 /V5   +……………[+ve]
Sub.+is/are/am + complement   [+ve]
Sub+do not+ V1+…..[plural sub.]  [-ve]
Sub+does not+ V1+…..[singular sub.]  [-ve]

V5=V1+s/es
Note:-  singular subjects(एकवचन कर्ता) :- He/she/it/name

               Plural subjects(बहुवचन कर्ता):- I/we/you/they etc.

Ex:- He goes to school.(वह स्कूल जाता है)

They go to school. (वे स्कूल जाते है)

The Earth is round.

b.continuous(is/are/am)[ [हिंदी वाक्यो के अंत में रहा है /रहे है /रही है आता है]

structure:-

Sub.+is/are/am +V1+ing +……..

Ex:- I am going to school.( मैं स्कूल जा रहा हूँ)

c.Perfect (has/have)[ हिंदी वाक्यो के अंत में चुका है/चुके है/ चुका हूँ/ लिया है आता है]

structure:-

Sub.+has/have +V3 +……..

             Ex:- He has finished his homework.(उसने अपना होमवर्क पूरा कर लिया है)

             Ex:- Science has given us many new inventions in the 20th century. (Incorrect)

Science has given us many new inventions. (Correct)

d.Perfect continuous(has been/have been) [ ऐसे कार्य जो past में शुरू हुए हो और वर्तमान में भी जारी हो]

structure:-

Sub.+has/have + been +V1 +ing…………for/since +time

Ex:- I have been living in Delhi for three years.( मैं दिल्ली में पिछले तीन सालो से रह रहा हूँ)

2. Past tense(भूतकाल)

a.Simple past(did) [ ऐसा कार्य जो past में समाप्त हो गया हो]

structure:-

Sub.+V2 +object +…………(+ve)
Sub.+did not +V1 +obj.+………(-ve)
Sub.+ was/were + complement

 Ex:-saw a movie yesterday.( मैंने कल एक मूवी देखी थी)

He was a lawyer.

Swami Vivekananda was a Hindu spiritual leader.

Ravi did not sign the document.

 Ex:- He has completed his work last night/month. (Incorrect)

He completed his work last night/month. (Correct)

b.Continuous(was/were)[ ऐसे कार्य के लिए जो past में जारी थे]

structure:-

Sub.+was/were +V1+ing +obj.……..

Ex:- He was playing cricket.( वह क्रिकेट खेल रहा था)

        They were playing cricket.( वे क्रिकेट खेल रहे थे)

c.Perfect (had): The Past Perfect expresses the idea that something occurred before another action in the past. It can also show that something happened before a specific time in the past. structure:-

Sub.+ had +V3 +……..

 Ex:- The patient had died before the doctor came.( डॉक्टर के आने से पहले मरीज मर चुका था)

Note:– जब past में दो कार्य एक के बाद एक हो तो पहला कार्य past perfect में तथा दूसरा कार्य simple past tense में होता है-

  Ex:  Before he understood anything, the robber fled. (incorrect)

Before he understood anything, the robber had fled. (correct)

d. Perfect continuous(जो कार्य भूतकाल में शुरू हुआ हो तथा कुछ देर चलने के बाद भूतकाल में ही ख़त्म हो गया हो):-

structure:-

Sub.+ had +been +V1+ing +Object…………+for/since + time

 Ex:- I had been waiting for you since morning.( मैं सुबह से तुम्हारा इंतज़ार कर रहा था)

3. Future Tense(भविष्यकाल)

a.Simple future(वाक्य के अंत में गा /गी /गे आता है )

structure:-

Sub.+ will/shall +V1+……………

Ex:- He will attend the party tomorrow.( वह कल पार्टी में शामिल होगा)

I /we shall play a football match next week.( मैं /हम अगले सप्ताह फुटबॉल मैच खेलेंगे)

b.Continuous:- (ऐसा कार्य जो भविष्य में कुछ समय के लिए जारी रहने वाला हो)

Structure:-

Sub.+ will/shall +be +V1+ing +……………

 Ex:- They will be going for a picnic at this time, next week.

c.Perfect (ऐसा कार्य जो भविष्य में किसी निर्धारित समय तक ख़त्म हो चुका होगा)

Structure:- 

Sub.+ will/shall +have +V3+……………

Ex:- He will have finished the work by Monday.( वह सोमवार तक अपना काम ख़त्म कर चुका होगा)

Ex:- We will have finished our work by the time you wake up.

d.Perfect continuous(जो कार्य भविष्य में कुछ समय तक जारी रहेगा)

Structure:- 

Sub.+ will/shall +have been +V1+ing + object+……………for/since + time

Ex:- I will have been waiting for one hour by seven O’clock.

When I finish this course, I will have been learning English for two years.

By the end of this year, I shall have been teaching in this college for five years.

Tenses: Fill in the blank exercise

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